# Articles

## Loan to Value Ratio (LTV): A Calculation Guide

The loan to value ratio (LTV) is widely used in commercial real estate. It is calculated by dividing the loan amount by the value of the property and expressed as a percentage. In this article, we will review the loan to value formula, how to calculate LTV, its significance, and its use in real estate …

## Effective Gross Income: A Calculation Guide

Effective gross income is a line item on a real estate proforma that is commonly used by appraisers, investors, and other commercial real estate professionals. Although the effective gross income is easy to understand conceptually, the calculation itself can sometimes be confusing. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at effective gross income and clear …

## Yield on Cost: A Beginner’s Guide

The yield on cost is a commonly used metric when evaluating real estate development and value-add projects. It is easy to calculate and is useful as a back of the envelope calculation. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the yield on cost in real estate. Here’s what you’ll learn: What is the …

## Modern Portfolio Theory: What It Is & How It Works

Modern portfolio theory is widely used in the world of finance. In this article we’ll take a closer look at what modern portfolio theory is, review an example calculation, and discuss the assumptions behind the theory. What is Modern Portfolio Theory? Modern portfolio theory (MPT) is widely used in finance and commercial real estate to …

## Year Over Year (YOY) Analysis: A Simple Guide

Year over Year (YoY) analysis is a powerful tool for financial analysis that provides a direct comparison of performance between two periods of time. In this article, we will explore what YoY analysis is, how it is calculated, and why it is useful. We will also look at the advantages and disadvantages of YoY analysis …

## Gross Income Multiplier: A Calculation Guide

The gross income multiplier is a metric used in commercial real estate valuation by analysts and appraisers. It is easy to calculate and requires little information, but it does come with some limitations. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at what the gross income multiplier means with several examples, including the potential gross …

## What is a 1031 Exchange? A Beginner’s Guide

To minimize or defer the tax bill when selling investment real estate, investors commonly use what’s known as a 1031 or Like Kind Exchange. In this article, you’ll learn what a 1031 exchange is, how a 1031 exchange works, what the 1031 exchange rules are, the 1031 exchange timeline, and then we’ll cover some frequently asked …

## Nominal vs. Effective Interest Rates: What You Should Know

Interpreting interest rates is not always as straightforward as it seems, and getting it right can have important implications for all parties involved in a commercial real estate transaction.  Interest rates can take two forms: nominal interest rates and effective interest rates.  As a result, there can be some confusion about what a quoted interest …

## How to Use SUMIF In Commercial Real Estate Analysis

When working with a commercial real estate data set, there are occasions where it is necessary to create a sum for a range of values, but only if they meet certain criteria.  Fortunately, there is an easy way to accomplish this task using a built in Microsoft Excel function known as “SUMIF.” In this article, the SUMIF function …

## Understanding The Right of Offset

Whether you work at a financial institution, develop real estate, invest in property, or act as a broker, there’s a common thread that binds all facets of the real estate world together.  It’s highly likely that you have one or more financial products like a credit card, debit card, deposit account, car loan, commercial real estate …