# Robert Schmidt

## Loan to Value Ratio (LTV): A Calculation Guide

The loan to value ratio (LTV) is widely used in commercial real estate. It is calculated by dividing the loan amount by the value of the property and expressed as a percentage. In this article, we will review the loan to value formula, how to calculate LTV, its significance, and its use in real estate …

## Yield on Cost: A Beginner’s Guide

The yield on cost is a commonly used metric when evaluating real estate development and value-add projects. It is easy to calculate and is useful as a back of the envelope calculation. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the yield on cost in real estate. Here’s what you’ll learn: What is the …

## Gross Income Multiplier: A Calculation Guide

The gross income multiplier is a metric used in commercial real estate valuation by analysts and appraisers. It is easy to calculate and requires little information, but it does come with some limitations. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at what the gross income multiplier means with several examples, including the potential gross …

## Nominal vs. Effective Interest Rates: What You Should Know

Interpreting interest rates is not always as straightforward as it seems, and getting it right can have important implications for all parties involved in a commercial real estate transaction.  Interest rates can take two forms: nominal interest rates and effective interest rates.  As a result, there can be some confusion about what a quoted interest …

## How the Sources and Uses Statement Works

The sources and uses statement is important to understand in commercial real estate transactions. Yet, there is often a lot of confusion around what a sources and uses statement is and why it is needed. In this short article, we’ll take a look at the sources and uses statement, discuss how it is used in …

## Real Estate Waterfall Models: What You Should Know

Equity waterfall models in commercial real estate projects are one of the most difficult concepts to understand in all of real estate finance. Cash flow from a development or investment project can be split in a countless number of ways, which is part of the reason why real estate waterfall models can be so confusing. …

## How to Calculate The Debt Yield Ratio

The debt yield is becoming an increasingly important ratio in commercial real estate lending. Traditionally, lenders have used the loan to value ratio and the debt service coverage ratio to underwrite a commercial real estate loan. Now, the debt yield is used by some lenders as an additional underwriting ratio. However, since it’s not widely used …

## Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR): A Calculation Guide

The Debt Service Coverage Ratio, often abbreviated as “DSCR”, is an important concept in real estate finance and commercial lending. It’s critical when underwriting commercial real estate and business loans as well as tenant financials, and it is a key part in determining the maximum loan amount. In this article, we’ll take a deep dive …

## How to Use The Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)

The Modified Internal Rate of Return, often just called the MIRR, is a powerful and frequently used investment performance indicator. Yet, it’s commonly misunderstood by many finance and commercial real estate professionals. In this post, we’ll take a deep dive into the concept of the MIRR. We’ll define the MIRR, look at the logic and intuition …

## Net Present Value (NPV): What You Should Know

The Net Present Value (NPV) is one of the most important and widely used concepts in finance and commercial real estate. In this article, you’ll learn: What Is Net Present Value (NPV)? Net Present Value (NPV) is an investment performance measure widely used in finance and commercial real estate. NPV is the difference between the present …